The number of older people, including those living with dementia, is rising, as younger age mortality declines. However, the age-specific incidence of dementia has fallen in many countries, probably because of improvements in education, nutrition, health care, and lifestyle changes. Overall, a growing body of evidence supports the nine potentially modifiable risk factors for dementia modelled by the 2017 Lancet Commission on dementia prevention, intervention, and care: less education, hypertension, hearing impairment, smoking, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, and low social contact. We now add three more risk factors for dementia with newer, convincing evidence. These factors are excessive alcohol consumption, traumatic brain injury, and air pollution. We have completed new reviews and meta-analyses and incorporated these into an updated 12 risk factor life-course model of dementia prevention. Together the 12 modifiable risk factors account for around 40% of worldwide dementias, which consequently could theoretically be prevented or delayed. The potential for prevention is high and might be higher in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) where more dementias occur.
For those with dementia, recommendations are:
AS reports grants from Wellcome Trust (200163/Z/15/Z), outside the submitted work. DA reports grants from Eli Lilly, during the conduct of the study. CBa reports grants and personal fees from Aca-dia and Lundbeck; and personal fees from Roche, Otsuka, Biogen, Eli Lilly, and Pfizer, outside the sub-mitted work. SB reports grants and personal fees from AbbVie, personal fees and non-financial sup-port from Eli Lilly, and personal fees from Eleusis, Daval International, Boehringer Ingelheim, Axovant Sciences, Lundbeck, and Nutricia, outside the submitted work; and he has been employed by the Department of Health for England. NF reports non-financial support from Eli Lilly, outside the submitted work. LNG and her institutions (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA, and Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA) are entitled to receive royalties from fees associated with online training for the tailored activity program, which is an evidence-based program referenced in the Review. RH reports grants from Department of Health, NIHR HTA Programme, outside the submitted work; and he is a Scientific Trustee of the charity Alzheimer’s Research UK. MK reports grants from the UK Medical Research Council (S011676, R024227), NordForsk (the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare, 75021) and the Academy of Finland (311492), outside the submitted work. EBL reports other (royalties) from UpToDate, outside the submitted work. KRo reports personal fees from Clinical Cardio Day-Cape Breton University, Sydney, NS, Canada, CRUIGM-Montreal, Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, MA, USA (speaker fees), MouseAge, Rome, Italy (speaker fees), Lundbeck, Frontemporal Dementia Study-Group, SunLife Insurance, Japan, outside the submitted work. He is a President and Chief Science Officer of DGI Clinical, which in the last 5 years has contracts with pharma and device manufacturers (Baxter, Baxalta, Shire, Hollister, Nutricia, Roche, Otsuka) on individualised outcome measurement. In 2017, he attended an advisory board meeting with Lundbeck. He is also Associate Director of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging, which is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and with additional funding from the Alzheimer Society of Canada and several other charities, as well as, in its first phase (2013-2018), from Pfizer Canada and Sanofi Canada. He receives career support from the Dalhousie Medical Research Foundation as the Kathryn Allen Weldon Professor of Alzheimer Research, and research support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the QEII Health Science Centre Foundation, the Capital Health Research Fund and the Fountain Family Innovation Fund of the QEII Health Science Centre Foundation. LSS reports grants and personal fees from Eli Lilly, Merck, and Roche/Genentech; personal fees from Avraham, Boehringer Ingelheim, Neurim, Neuronix, Cognition, Eisai, Takeda, vTv, and Abbott; and grants from Biogen, Novartis, Biohaven, and Washington University DIAN-TU, outside the submitted work. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interests.